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Moe is one of the three major urban centres of the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. The other two are Morwell and Traralgon.

The Moe area was first settled by the Ganai people. Europeans arrived in the 1840's with the arrival of the squatters. It was not until the arrival of the selectors in the 1860's and 1870's and the building of the Gippsland railway line that the population began to grow. After the first train arrived from Melbourne in 1878 the station area became the focal point for development as an agricultural and commercial centre. By 1938 Moe had only 750 people.

The development of the brown coal fields by the then State Electricity Commission, after the war, brought a huge influx of people and the population grew at a rapid rate to 16,999 by 1986.

Moe was part of the Narracan Shire but was declared a separate Borough in 1955 and was declared a City in 1963. In 1995 Moe was amalgamated with Morwell Shire, Traralgon Shire and Traralgon City to form the Latrobe Shire, now called City of Latrobe.