Bottom Strakes
Ceiling Planking
Outer planking
Bilge; (i).Part of the underwater body of a ship between the flat of the bottom and the straight vertical sides. (ii). Internally, the lowest part of the hull, next to the keelson.

Bottom Strakes; One breadth of plank wrought from one end of the ship to the other, either within or without board and coming from the bottom region the ship.

Bulwark; The part of a ship's side that extends above the main deck to protect it against heavy weather.

Ceiling Planking; The inside planks of a vessel.

Dunnage; Wood, bamboo etc. laid at the bottom of a ship, to keep the cargo dry.

Floor-timbers; Large and strong pieces of timber which extend across the keel; upon these floors the frames are erected.

Frames; The bends of timber which form the body of the ship, each of which is composed of one floor-timber, two or three futtocks, and a top-timber on each side; which being united together, form the frame. Of these frames or bends, that which incloses the greatest space is called the midship or main frame or bend. The arms of the floor-timber form a very obtuse angle; and, in the other frames, this angle decreases or gradually becomes sharper, fore and aft, with the middle line of the ship. Those floors which form the acute angles afore and abaft are called the rising-floors.

Gudgeons (gudgins); That part of the hinges (braces) of a rudder which are fixed on the stern post.The gudgeon has a circular hole in the after end of the braces through which the pin of the pintle passses. The pintles are that part of the hinge (brace) that is attached to the rudder.

Keel; A longitudinal timber, or series of timbers scarfed together, extending from stem to stern along the bottom of a vessel. It is the principal timber of the vessel, and, by means of the ribs attached on each side, supports the vessel's frame. In an iron vessel, a combination of plates supplies the place of the keel of a wooden ship.

Keelson; or kelson, a longitudinal strengthening timber(s) which rests upon the floors and is generally bolted through the floor timbers to the keel in wooden ships. In many vessels the keelson also takes the maststep. When additional timbers are laid alongside the keelson, these are termed sister keelsons; those laid atop the main keelson are termed rider keelsons. In composite, iron or steel ships, the keelson may be either a simple I beam, or flat plate keelson; or a box configuration.

Knees; Pieces of timber in the form of a right angle; they are sometimes made of iron, and are used for binding the beams to the ship's sides, the one leg or arm of the knee being bolted to the side-timbers, and the other to the beam.

Outer Planking; Planks applied to the outside of a ship to cover its timbers. Wood much less in thickness than in breadth is called a plank.

Pintles; That part of the hinges of a rudder, having a strong pin at the fore-end of the braces, which passes down through a circular hole in the after end of the braces, which are fixed on the stern post. The pintles are attached to the rudder.

Planksheer or Gunwale;A name for the covering boards. The boards which run round the vessel's upperworks, a little above the deck. It lies on the ends of the top timbers, and the stanchions which support the rail pass through it.

Stem; The main timber at the fore-part of the ship, formed, by the combination of several pieces, into a circular shape, and erected vertically to receive the ends of the bow planks, which are united to it by means of a rabbet. Its lower end scarphs or boxes into the keel, through which the rabbet is also carried, and the bottom unites in the same manner.

Sternpost; The principal piece of timber in the stern-frame, on which the rudder is hung, and to which the transoms are bolted. It therefore terminates the ship below the wing-transom, and its lower end is tenoned into the keel.

Treenail; Cylindrical oak (typically) pins driven through the planks and timbers of a vessel to fasten or connect them together. These fastenings were best when driven through, and caulked or wedged inside. Ideally made from the very best oak split out near the butt, and perfectly dried or well seasoned.

Wales; Strong timbers that go round a ship a little above her water-line.