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Ref. Paali MN 28 : PTS M i 191 : Chinese MA 30
Ref. Paali SN 12.3.3 (SN 12.23) : PTS S ii 29-33 : No Chinese equivalent found yet
Profound, Ananda, is this dependent arising, and profound does it appear. It is through not understanding, not penetrating, this subtle law that this world resembles a tangled ball of thread, a bird's nest, a thicket of grass or reed. Any person who does not understand this, does neither escape from the lower states of existence, nor from the course of pain, misery & suffering, nor from this ever-returning round of birth. Digha Nikaya 15
"... all you to whom I have taught these truths that I have realised by super-knowledge should come together and recite them, setting meaning beside meaning and expression beside expression, without dissension, in order that this holy life may continue and be established for a long time for the profit and happiness of the many ..." Paali: Long Discourses of the Buddha number (DN) 29 : PTS D iii 127 : Chinese: MA 17
Another list of steps that I would have liked to include here is the 16 steps of the Discourse of Recollection of Breathing (Aanaapaanaasati-sutta), but space does not allow it. Please see this document.
A note to those unfamiliar with Dependent Arising or Dependent Origination: it exemplifies cause/action and effect/consequence (kamma-karma and vipaaka, hetu and phala) in the Buddha's teaching. It shows how one effect becomes a cause and is the springboard for another effect.
|Dependent Arising||Paali AN 10's 1-5 : PTS A v 1-6 :
Chinese MA 42, 43, 47, 48, SA 495
|Path + Fruit - magga + phala||Jou's Summary - Mainly The 4 Factors for Stream Entry and the Tenfold Path [the links to other pages in this column are broken - to be revised]||Factors of Awareness (A)||Awareness Level #||5 Hindrances Paali PTS A iii 62 and 10 Fetters Eradicated Paali PTS S v 61, A V 17||Three Knowledges - tisso-vijja (other comments) [the four sublime abidings (F) ]|
|stress / distress (A)||Fruit of the Commoner - puthujana phala||the fruit of the "wrong" path||desire for sense stimulus - kaamaraaga|
|Path of Stream Entry - sotapanna magga (E)||associating with the wise||viveka - separated from desire for five sense stimulus and unwholesome states of mind||1||(temporary morality - dependent on others)|
|listening to another's speech - understanding dependent on others||1 reason - !! vitakka||1||(listen to Process - dhamma)|
|wise reflection - self as a refuge||2 investigation - vicaara||1||(study Process - dhamma)|
|practising the Process according to the Process|
|Fruit of Stream Entry - sotapanna phala (1)||right view or understanding - independent of others - self as a refuge||F1 = identity view- sakkaaya-dit.th.i||(attain "Eye of Process - Dhamma" D i 62-84, 100 etc)|
|faith or confidence||F2/H5 = doubt - vicikicchaa (C)|
|right aspiration||H1 = sensual desire - kaama chanda
H2 = ill will - byaapaada
|[loving kindness - mettaa]|
|morality - siila - independent of others||right effort in:
|F3 = practising rites and rituals - siilabbata-paraamaasa||[compassion / empathetic sadness - karunaa]|
|freedom from remorse - avippatisaara|
|joy||joy - paamujja||[empathetic joy - muditaa]|
|interest (A)||interest - piiti||Path of Once Returner - sakadagami magga(2)||3 interest - piiti||1||2||H3 = sloth and torpor - thiina-middha|
|tranquillity||tranquillity - passadhi||2||F4-5 = desire for or repulsion at five sense stimulus - kaamaraaga or pat.igha|
|happiness||happiness - sukha||Fruit of Once Returner - sakadagami phala (3)||4 happiness - sukha||1||2||F6-7 = desire for forms + desire for formlessness - ruuparaaga + aruuparaaga|
|concentration or mindfulness (A)||concentration or mindfulness - samaadhi||Path of Non-returner - anagami magga (4)||5 one-pointedness - ekodibhaava or ekagataa (B)||2||F9 = distraction - uddhacca
H4 = distraction and worry - udhacca-kukkucca
|Fruit of Non-returner - anagami phala (5)||equanimity - upekkhaa||3||4||[equanimity - upekkhaa]|
|know reality||knowledge and vision of things as they truly are - yathaabhuuta nyaanadassana||Path of Accomplishment - arahanta magga (6)||Right Insight covers the next two items:
right recollection (A)
|recollection - sati||3||4||1 - previous habitation or dwelling recollection knowledge (investigate the three characteristics in past experience - all conditioned things are impermanent - seeing ageing; all conditioned things are stressful - seeing sickness; all conditioned things are not soul - seeing death (D) )|
|disenchantment||disenchantment - nibbidaa||right knowledge||clearly comprehending - sampajanya||3||F8 = conceit - maana (C)||2 - knowledge of the rise and fall of beings according to their intention-kamma (investigate the three characteristics in present experience - all conditioned things are impermanent - seeing ageing; all conditioned things are stressful - seeing sickness; all conditioned things are not soul - seeing death (D) )|
|dispassion||dispassion - viraaga|
|liberation - vimutti|
|know cessation - khaye~naa.nam||knowledge and vision of freedom - vimutti nyaanadassana||Fruit of Accomplishment - arahanta phala (7)||right liberation||complete purity - pari-suddhi or visuddhi (D)||4||F10 = ignorance - avijjaa||3 - knowledge of the end of the tendencies|
(A) - English translations of Paali terms: dukkha=stress [as with Thanissaro Bhikkhu], piiti=interest, samaadhi=mindfulness/concentration, sati=memory/recollection [some translators have recognised semantic change with this term and that the earlier use still can be found in Paali texts - ref?], anattaa=non-soul/not soul and the most unusual jhaana=awareness - see my book for the reasoning. This is mainly about "semantic change". Also see note B.
(B) The English Theravada commentarial and meditation tradition only talk of 5 Jhaana factors, which stop at one-pointedness or concentration - just like the Noble Eightfold Path, but the Buddha mentions 10 jhaana factors, which go beyond concentration to Wisdom, just like the Tenfold Path goes beyong concentration with its extra Right Insight and Right Liberation. This would have been an influence of Hinduism on the interpretation of the Buddha's teaching, as Hinduism taught Samadhi [one-pointedness and equanimity] was the complete enlightenment [ref]. As we can see from this comparison, the Buddha's version of the 4 [ruupa] jhaana covers the whole path. It is the 4 ARUUPA-jhaana that the Buddha taught are good to develop, but not necessary. [ref]
(C) There seems to be only two misplacement in the texts, which indicates how well the texts have been preserved. The two are: 1. doubt (H5): it is misplaced as one of the Five Hindrances only, as a Fetter it is not misplaced. This misplacement to fifth place -the last hindrance in the list of five- would be due to the idea given by Dhammadinna that Right View and Right Aspiration were the Wisdom Group and came *after* concentration; and 2. conceit (F8) was put before distraction (F9), but it could not be gotten rid of till the realisation of non-soul (anattaa) which is attained in the development of the three insight-knowledges (tisso-vijja) through contemplation of the three characteristics (see below), which comes *after* concentration.
(D) The three characteristics: "All conditioned things are impermanent, all conditioned things are stress, all processes are not soul, whoever sees this with wisdom, for them stress stops, this is the path to purity." (DH. 277-9, S iv 1) "sabbe sankhaaraa aniccaati, sabbe sankhaaraa dukkhaati, sabbe dhammaa anattaati, yada panyaaya passati, atha nibbindati dukkhe, eso maggo visuddhiyaa". But I follow the Chinese and Tibetan readings here which has "conditioned things - sankhaaraa" as the topic of all three characteristics - whereas the Paali has "dhammaa" in the third.
(E) Maximum 7 more becomings (1)-(7)
(F) Understanding the relevance of the four sublime abidings has been the cause for the cessation of the Mahaayaana/Hiinayaana dichotomy of thought, in me.
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